The paper is on Abortion rights in Michigan.
I need a reference page with a list of AT LEAST 15 sources about your research problem. Make sure that you follow APA format.
Each student shall write a 3 page memo (double-spaced, 12 pt. font) answering the questions below. You can provide relevant graphs or data tables to report your findings in your memo. Please report the source of the data in the list of references. As in APA format, all graphs, tables should be attached at the end of your document in an appendix and only referenced in the body of the memo. Provide empirical evidence and make sure you cite your references throughout the memo. You may use secondary sources (i.e. policy briefs, newspapers or magazine articles). Please provide a list of references at the end of your brief.
Questions to answer:
Describe two examples of policy solutions to your problem. Where have they been tried? Has either one proven to be successful?
Briefly assess whether either proposal could be applied in your context. Why? Why not?
GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH PAPER
1. The assignment is to do a policy analysis. Of course, you should bring in some “factual” material to set your problems and illustrate and support your arguments.
2. This is not intended to be solely a library research paper of the usual sort. The paper also is not intended to be an abstract discussion of “issues in general,” organizational analysis, a management analysis, or a program analysis. These might be ingredients in the paper, but the focus should be clearly on the policy issue which lies behind them and which gives it significance (e.g., the gun control issue, religious activities in public places, ballot initiatives & recalls, affirmative action, prescription drug benefits, reparations, bilingual education, gay unions, teacher testing, decriminalization of drug use, the Patriot Act, campaign finance reform, etc.)
3. Selection of a policy issue. Any policy issue is acceptable. However, be aware that the probability of a successful and useful paper tends to go up with the degree of Interest you have in the issue. Your interests are far from irrelevant since a very early stage of any analysis involves making explicit what one’s interests are — what is of concern. Unexamined concerns can foreclose certain alternatives that may dictate the solutions and recommendations with which you will conclude. You should be aware of your own proclivities as you embark upon the analysis (or as soon as possible thereafter).
4. There is nearly as much variability in the concrete form that analysis can take as there is in the sort of issues addressed. The organization of the paper should follow, reflect, and facilitate the expression of the substance. Decisions about how to organize it are yours–but you should be aware that they will materially affect the analysis. As a practical matter, the way you speak (write) has a lot to do with how you are heard. Therefore, the way an analysis is presented importantly influences how it is received and used, or what happens as a result of it. Conceptually, form and substance are intertwined but try to let substance precede form in importance.
5. Certain elements are widely thought to be appropriate to policy analysis and are strung together in a “rationalistic” version of the various phases below. It is not recommended that you try to organize your paper (or your mind) in this way; rather these should be viewed and treated as a set of considerations which, in some form, will enter into your analysis.
6. Faced with a problematic situation, first state what (your) the objectives are with respect to it; determine what values are at stake, and rank order them in a priority order; consider (all?) the consequences, (specify in degree of probability) attached to each alternative; evaluate the benefits and, by aggregation, each alternative; choose that alternative which provides the best mix of consequences, greatest net benefit, in relation to the set of objectives specified (and other values you may hold?); proceed to implement that choice assuming you have the resources and set up an evaluation procedure to measure progress toward the goals together with a timetable for goal achievement.
7. Notes about method. Often, the methods we have “at hand” dictate the approach we take, and are used regardless of the subject matter. As with structure, the methods chosen: should be dictated instead by substantive considerations. In general, you will find talking/arguing with yourself and others about the issues useful. It will be necessary for you to familiarize yourself with the arguments, positions, competing values, etc., that relate to your issue.
8. Limitations on size. Be “as short as possible and as long as necessary.” Aim to keep the body of the paper to about 10-12 double-spaced pages. There will be a tendency to expand as time goes on so be sure to leave some time to winnow and rewrite.
9. How the analysis will be judged. I will be looking for evidence of careful, clear, cogent, coherent, critical, personal thinking presented in a solid, well developed, well-written, well-defended argument. Your discussion will be adequate if it has as much clearness as the subject matter admits of . . . (Aristotle). Do not aggravate the messiness of policy problems by fuzzy-headedness. Do not distort the problem by enforcing adherence to some pre-set standards of precision and simplicity. I also will be looking for:
a. Who is hurt/helped by the current state of affairs and by the alternatives;
b. Representation of value conflicts, trade-offs between/among alternatives;
c. Breadth and depth of thinking–context and significance of problems, consequences of alternative courses of action for the “larger system”;
d. Care and caution in the use of words such as. “must,” “need,” or “cause”;
e. Care in drawing conclusions. giving justifications;
f. Design of preferred alternatives to fit described (prescribed) situation;
g. Awareness of constraints on implementing preferred alternatives; and
h. Awareness of limitations on the analysis.
10. Special caution. Most people are not accustomed to thinking in these ways, or at least in doing this sort of term paper. Some find it irresistible to give long case descriptions, chronology, or history of issues, and then to stick in a couple of pages of analysis just before the conclusion. I want you to give an equal balance between description and analysis and include not more than five or so pages on “background” or other such description. If you really need more than that, include it in an Appendix. In general, you should proceed as if your audience is reasonably intelligent, generally well-informed, and interested in your issue.
Hi there! Click one of our representatives below and we will get back to you as soon as possible.