Theory Application Paper
The paper will comprise of cited research on the effectiveness of the model(s) or theories related to your identified issue of HIV among homeless youth, a gap analysis, and a proposed intervention that would help fill the gap.
Guidelines for Submission:? Submit a 10 page word document that uses 11-pt Times New Roman font with 1 inch margins. Utilize at least 10 references to support your claims. All citations and other formatting conventions should follow the most current version of AMA style.
TOPIC: HIV Among Homeless Youth in the US
Your paper needs to include the following:
? Explain the history, public health implication, affected population, and economic and/or social consequences.
? State why the issue you chosen is an important one to aIDress.
? Explain how aIDressing this issue might lead to better conditions.
? Identify a gap that still exists despite the current efforts in the field. What could be done to aIDress the gap? What behavioral change must occur?
? Support all claims with relevant and reputable resources and examples. You may want to reference the work done in your research summaries.
? You are not expected to provide an in depth proposal with all the details of the intervention.
? For example: An intervention for school aged children who smoke may be an after school program to enhance positive interaction among peers.
? Explain how your intervention utilizes the chosen theory/model. What specific components of the theory/model are being used in your intervention?
? Support your proposed intervention with evidence from the literature. Reference the work completed in your research summaries.
? Make a table/visual/figure that illustrates the relationship between your theory/model and the proposed intervention. This visual should show which components of the theory/model are being used and where in the intervention.
? Summarize the major concepts from this paper.
? How does your intervention achieve the desired behavioral change?
? What limitations are there to your proposed plan?
? Discuss potential next steps.
|Excellent||Satisfactory||Needs Improvement||Not Evident|
Satisfactory criteria and explains how aIDressing this issue might lead to better conditions
|Succinctly identifies chosen issue/behavior, explains the history, public health implication, affected population, economic/social consequences, and identifies why the issue is important to aIDress||There are gaps in
the identification of the chosen issue/behavior, explanation of the history, description of the public health implications, the description of the affected population, discussion of the economic/social consequences, or
the identification of why the issues in an important one to aIDress
|Does not correctly identify the chosen issue/behavior, explanation of the history, description of the public health implications, the description of the affected population, discussion of the economic/social consequences, and/or the identification of why the issues in an important one to aIDress|
|Correctly describes the||There are gaps in the description of||Does not describe the social and|
|criteria and supports all claims with relevant and reputable resources and examples||social and behavioral health models people in the field have used to aIDress this issue||the social and behavioral health models people in the field have used to aIDress the issue||behavioral health models people in the field have used to aIDress this issue|
|Gap Analysis||Meets the
Satisfactory criteria and supports all claims with relevant and reputable resources and examples
|Identifies a gap that exists and discusses what could be done to aIDress the gap||Identifies a gap that exists, but does not discuss what could be done to aIDress the gap||Does not identify a gap that exists|
criteria and supports proposed intervention with evidence from the
|Proposes a behavioral intervention for an identified target group that would fill the identified
gap and explains how the intervention utilizes a specific theory/model
|Proposes a behavioral intervention for an identified target group that would fill the identified gap, but does not explain how the intervention utilizes a specific theory/model||Does not propose a behavioral intervention for an identified target group that would fill the identified
|Table, Visual, or Figure||Creates a visual that clearly illustrates the relationship between the theory/model and the proposed intervention||There are gaps in the visual that does not clearly illustrate the relationship between the theory/model and the proposed intervention||Does not create a
visual that illustrates the relationship between the theory/model and the proposed intervention
Satisfactory criteria and summary is clear and succinct
|Summarizes major concepts, discusses how the intervention fills the identified gap, and discusses limitations of the proposed plan||There are gaps in the summary of the major concepts, the discussion of how the intervention fills the identified gap, or the discussion of limitations of the proposed plan||Does not summarize major concepts, discuss how the
intervention fills the identified gap, and discuss limitations of the
Satisfactory criteria and all
|Correctly cites all sources used in the analysis and||All sources are relevant to the chosen disease or||There are citation errors and sources are not relevant to|
|sources are reputable and current||all sources are relevant to the chosen disease or condition||condition, but there are citation errors||the chosen disease or condition|
|Writing Mechanics||Meets the
satisfactory level and all sections are clear, concise, and written in a professional tone
|Paper is organized in the required format and contains no grammatical errors||There are grammatical and formatting errors, but they do not affect the readability of the paper||Errors in formatting or grammar affect the readability of the Paper|
HIV Prevalence among Homeless Youths
HIV is an acronym of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is relatively high in homeless youths than stably housed youths in the country. According to California Homeless Youth Project publications, homeless and unstably, housed youths are likely to be exposed to contracting HIV, 2014. According to the report, roughly 60% of homeless youths are unaware of their HIV status1. This shows that the spread of HIV among these youths are quite unintentional. Lack of information or awareness about their health status is contributed by lack of accessibility to medication. Also, the sexual lifestyle of the unstably housed youths contributed greatly to their prevalence to the HIV/AIDS. As a matter of fact, homeless youths sexual lifestyle is classified into gay, lesbian and heterosexual or bisexual among others shows a different level of vulnerability to contracting HIV.
According to National Coalition for the Homeless, there is a higher rate of HIV infection among the homeless youths than well-housed youths in the same regions, 2007. According to the study, the level of vulnerability among homeless youths is about 3%-20% on the lower margin while other subgroups are rated to be of higher burdens of the menace2. In essence, people living with HIV are considered to have a higher risk of being homeless than their counterparts. For instance, a study conducted in Los Angeles indicated that almost 50% of domicile individuals living with HIV/AIDS believe that they were riskier to become homeless due to their conditions. Being homeless provides higher chances of the high mortality rate for the infected people than their counterparts. For example, youths who are homeless are prone to unprotected sex or do not mind about safe sex, thus increasing chances of infection. AIDitionally, this age is susceptible to regular unprotected sex with their counterparts whom they are not aware of their HIV status. According to CDC, stable housing accelerates the accessibility of medical care and observance to antiretroviral therapy that reduces the replication of the virus in HIV-positive individuals. However, homeless people are not able to access health care and medication and are highly vulnerable to the spread of the virus and early deaths.
Sarah Knopf estimated that by around 2009, the number of people diagnosed with HIV were roughly 784701. On the other hand, by 2010 those who were affected were found within low-income areas of U.S amounted to 2.1% as compared to general population3. Going by this data, it is evident that areas that are highly impoverished are vulnerable to HIV, as well as unstably housed individuals. The economic impact of these individuals in these areas record low gross income due to lack of energy and commitment to economic production. Correspondingly, their social life is highly affected as they cannot afford decent housing, better diet and proper medication in the street where they seek for their shelter.
It is very important to examine the issue of HIV among homeless youths. Also, it is vital to aIDress the issue with the aim of improving the conditions of HIV-positive homeless youths in U.S. According to National HCH Councils Quarterly Report, there is a high-risk behavior among homeless individuals than their counterparts in stable housing setup, 2012. Homelessness promotes uncontrolled engagement in behaviors that are linked to HIV risks such as unprotected sex practices, drug abuse or drug injections among youths through sharing of needles that promotes the spread of HIV3. In aIDition, there are high chances of the unstably housed youths to engage in commercial sex, hence promoting the spread of HIV/AIDS. So, providing decent housing model to keep the youths from the street and close care such as guidance and counseling would help to reduce the spread of HIV and AIDS due to the creation of self-awareness among the youths. To reduce prevalence and spread of HIV among homeless youths, the concerned parties must at least house the affected youths to provide medication and a good diet to help in reducing the adverse effect on the affected groups. Finally, it is evident that the rate of infection and risk factor is so high in low-income areas where housing is a challenge. Consequently, the economic empowerment that can allow the inhabitants to afford better housing and income generation to reduce chances of commercial sex would help greatly in reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS.
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