QuestionQUESTION 11. Which of the following barriers to problem solving is defined as an availability heuristic? preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidencejudging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available the other instances of the event are in memorypersisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way 1 pointsQUESTION 21. Which type of intelligence declines over the life span?fluid intelligencenaturalistic intelligencecrystallized intelligenceinterpersonal intelligence1 pointsQUESTION 31. In order for any test to be scientifically acceptable it should meet three basic requirements: standardization, reliability, and validity. Which of the following defines reliability? a measure of the stability of test scores over time when test is given to the same person at different times using test-retest or split-half methodpredicts human behavior in different circumstances in order to determine its truthfulnessgiving a test to a large number of people to develop the norms for the test and ensuring the procedures for administering the test are formalized so that all people who administer the test do so in exactly the same wayrefers to how well the test measures what it is intended to measure to understand the underlying psychological construct1 pointsQUESTION 41. Which parenting style helps children to become high achieving, self-reliant, well-adjusted, and socially competent?authoritarianpermissive neglectfulauthoritativepermissive-indulgent1 pointsQUESTION 51. In Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, the reflection on the past, acceptance of and satisfaction with life is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?ego integrity vs. despair generativity vs. stagnation intimacy vs. isolation identity vs. role confusion 1 pointsQUESTION 61. In Kohlberg’s theory, which of the following stages of moral development is characterized by obeying the rules based on reciprocity in obtaining rewards?instrumental-exchange orientationsocial-contract orientationgood-child orientationpunishment-obedience orientation1 pointsQUESTION 71. Which theory of aging postulates that a natural decrease of social contacts occurs because older adults prefer valuable and meaningful interactions with significant others?cognitive-emotional selectivity theory of agingsocioemotional selectivity theory of agingdisengagement theory of agingactivity theory of aging1 pointsQUESTION 81. Social learning theory suggests that learning gender roles isa passive processa mediation processa self-reflection processan active process1 pointsQUESTION 91. According to a drive reduction theory of motivation,level of arousal determines our performance in satisfying needsinternal factors push people in certain directions to satisfy their needsexternal factors pull people in certain directions to satisfy their needsattributions and expectancies determine our motivation to satisfy needs1 pointsQUESTION 101. Which of the eating disorders is characterized by consumption of large quantities of food, vomiting, purging, and excessive exercise?Binge eating disorderAnorexia nervosaobesity disorderBulimia nervosa1 pointsQUESTION 111. Schatcher and Singer theory of emotions postulates thatphysiological arousal and emotion occur simultaneously when thalamus sends message to the cerebral cortex and autonomic nervous systemmovements of facial muscles produce or intensify our subjective experience of emotionsemotion depends of physiological arousal and cognitive labeling of that arousal subjective experience of emotion results from physiological arousal that precedes it1 pointsQUESTION 121. Which of the following is the CORRECT order of events in the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?Perception of event – perception of body response – emotionPerception of event and emotion simultaneously – body responsePerception of event – physiological response and emotionsimultaneouslyPerception of event – emotion – body response1 pointsQUESTION 131. Which of the defense mechanisms is characterized by not recognizing own unacceptable impulses and overemphasizing their opposite?projectionreaction formationdisplacementdenial1 pointsQUESTION 141. In Rogers theory of personality, adjustment is the result ofacceptance of self with no contingencies attachedincongruence between self-concept and life experiencesan incompatibility between self-concept and self-esteemcongruence between self-concept and life experiences1 pointsQUESTION 151. Anxiety disorders includephobias, panic attacks, selective mutismdelusions and hallucinationsfatigue, sadness, insomniagrandiosity, rush of energy, distractability1 pointsQUESTION 161. Someone who experiences grandiosity, excessive talking, racing thoughts, and agitation has amanic episodeattention deficit and hyperactivity disorderpsychotic episodemanic-depressive syndrome1 pointsQUESTION 171. Symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders includehypomania, agitation, insomnia, irrational investments, and inattentiondissociation, depersonalization,derealization, and obsessive thoughtshallucinations, delusion, catalepsy, unusual mannerisms, and social withdrawalavoidance, irritability, startle response, anhedonia, and amnesia1 pointsQUESTION 181. Which disorder has the symptoms of sadness, fatigue, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, indecisiveness?personality disorderdissociative disorderbipolar disorderdepressive disorder1 pointsQUESTION 191. Which thinking patterns that underlie some disorders are changed with cognitive-behavioral therapy?rationalization, repression, dissociationtask shifting, prioritizing, flatteningmagnification, overgeneralization, selective perceptioncompulsion, racing thoughts, referencing1 pointsQUESTION 201. Bipolar disorder is best treated withneurolepticsmood stabilizersanxiolyticsantidepressants1 points
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