1） What non-religious factors allowed the rise of Islam? How does the view presented here differ from your previous view of Islam?
2) What similarities and differences were there between the Islamic empires and the Byzantine empire? What were the root causes of the Crusades?
3) How does the Mamluk empire compare to other empires? What other empire is the Mamluk most similar to?
4) Describe the trade system. What is the trade system most similar to? What is the most surprising thing in the area of trade? Discuss developments in religion, science and the arts.
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